IYL 2015 Images

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    White Matter Fibers

    While most people are familiar with "grey matter" associated with the brain, many people may not know about white matter. This is a network, made up of nerve fibers, that connects different parts of the brain and spinal cord to one another. This image was made using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), which is a variant of magnetic resonance imaging. In DSI, radio waves from water molecules energized by a magnetic field map the water contained in neuron fibers, which, in turn, reveals their criss-crossing patterns. Scientists are using this technique and others like it to make a comprehensive map of neural connections—a "wiring diagram," so to speak—in the brain.
    Image Credit: ALFRED PASIEKA www.alfred-pasieka.de
    view and download image here. http://lightexhibit.org/photoindex.html

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    Nerve Cells of Eye's Retina

    The retina of your eye consists of many interconnected layers of nerve cells, some of which are sensitive to light. Most people have heard of the two types of photoreceptors used to form images: the rod and cone cells. Recently, a third class of photoreceptors has been discovered in the retina's ganglion nerve layer. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells sense the general brightness of ambient light. They are linked directly to several areas of the brain where they control processes such as regulating pupil size and synchronizing the 24-hour circadian rhythm cycle. In this image the cone cells form the top (green) layer and the ganglion cells are at the bottom.
    Image Credit: Wei Li, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
    view and download image here. http://lightexhibit.org/photoindex.html

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    Mouse Retina

    A laser scanning, or "confocal," microscope scans a sample point-by-point or line-by-line at once, assembling the pixel information to generate one image. This allows for a very high-resolution and high-contrast image in three dimensions. The image shown here is from a laser scanning microscope of a mouse retina, where the cells have been stained with fluorescent dye to show different features. By studying the microscopic structure of both diseased and normal retina and optic nerves through this innovative light-based technique, scientists hope to better understand the biology of these tissues and the prospects of developing therapeutic interventions.
    Image Credit: National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
    view and download image here. http://lightexhibit.org/photoindex.html

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    Astrocyte Brain Cells

    Astrocytes are the star-shaped cells found in spinal cord and the brain. In fact, they are the most abundant cells in the human brain. In this image of astrocytes, the nucleus of each cell has been stained blue while the cytoplasm (the fluid that fills the cell) has been colored green. To achieve this, the process of immunofluorescence was used. Immunofluorescence is a staining technique that uses antibodies to attach fluorescent dyes to specific tissues and molecules in the cell.
    Image Credit: Nancy Kedersha/Science Photo Library
    view and download image here. http://lightexhibit.org/photoindex.html

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    Vorticella

    Protozoa are single-celled animals found throughout the world in many different habitats. The name protozoa means "first animals," and they play a key role in maintaining and balance of bacteria, algae, and other microbial life. This photograph illuminates one particular type of protozoa called vorticella. In this image, a technique called "dark field microscopy" was used. This technique blocks out the direct light from the source, so that only light scattered by the specimen is observed, enabling brilliant bright images to be seen again a dark background. This is one way that light can reveal the fascinating and beautiful members of the microbe world.
    Image Credit: Frank Fox, www.mikro-foto.de
    view and download image here. http://lightexhibit.org/photoindex.html